The accompanying drawing of storm and sanitary drains should be studied in detail by the reader. The location of each trap and fitting should be studied carefully and the reason that it is put in that particular place should be thoroughly understood. Below, each plan has been taken and gone over in detail, bringing out the reasons for fittings and traps, also the arrangement of the piping.
The first thing to note in Fig. 46 is the number and kinds of fixtures to be drained. There is in the basement a set of three-part wash trays. This will require a 2-inch waste and a 11⁄2-inch vent. There is in the drawing a 2-inch waste extending to the fixtures above. On the same line is a rain leader with a trap showing also a 4-inch floor drain. There are two 4-inch rain leaders on the opposite corners of the plan, in the rear of the building. There is a 4-inch soil stack for fixtures above and a 4-inch soil stack in the basement on the same line for a basement toilet. On the front there are rain leaders in each corner. These will be connected outside of the house trap (this feature should be noted). The outlets that are to discharge into the house drain are as follows:
If we were to install this job, we would first locate each pipe that enters the house drain. The lowest outlet would be particularly noted, in this case the 4-inch floor drain. From this drain we must make sure that at least 1⁄4 inch to the foot fall is secured. We must then locate the house sewer where it enters the foundation wall, then the work can be started. I will not attempt to list the material that is necessary for this work, at this time. With all the material at hand the house drain is started. All of this work is installed under the ground, therefore trenches must be dug for all the piping. The plumber must lay these trenches out and in doing so he must have in mind all connections and the fittings he can use so that the trenches can be dug at the right angle. The trenches must be dug allowing a pitch for the pipe. The height of the cellar is 8 feet below the joists. A stick is cut 8 feet long which can be used to get the trenches below the cement floor at the right depth. After the digging is completed, the house trap, which is a 6-inch running trap, is caulked into a length of 6-inch cast-iron pipe. This piece of pipe is pushed out toward the sewer bringing the trap near the foundation wall, on the inside. The fittings and traps and pipe are caulked in place as fast as possible. When possible, the joints are caulked outside of the trench in an upright position. There are a number of different ways to caulk this pipe together, and to make it clear to the beginner just how it is done the following exercise is suggested. This job brings in the caulking of pipes, traps, and fittings in various positions. Two or three can work on this job together. Fig. 47 shows how the pipe and fittings are put together, which needs no further explanation. Therefore, we will go over in detail only the caulking of the joints in the various positions.
Material Needed.—One length of 4-inch extra heavy cast-iron pipe, single hub; two lengths of 4-inch extra heavy cast-iron pipe, double hub; one running trap, one full Y, one 4-inch 1⁄4 bend; two 4-inch clean-out screws with iron body; one 4-inch vent cap; one 4-inch 1⁄8 bend; 30 pounds of block lead; 2 pounds of oakum.
Tools Required.—Ladle, asbestos pourer, hammer, cold chisel, yarning iron, two caulking irons, furnace and pot.
The beginner should start at the trap and caulk the joints with the trap held in place. The cold chisel should be sharp as it is used to cut the cast-iron pipe.
To caulk the straight end of cast-iron pipe into the hub end and make a water-tight joint when the pipe is in a vertical position, the spigot end of the pipe is entered into the hub end of another piece. A wad of oakum is taken and forced into the hub with the yarning iron. This piece of oakum is forced to the bottom of the hub, then another piece is put in. The oakum is set and packed by using the yarning iron and hammer. The hub is half filled with oakum. The oakum is forced tight enough to make a water-tight joint. If the oakum used comes in a bale, pieces of it will have to be taken and rolled into long ropes about 18 inches long, the thickness of the rope corresponding with the space between the hub and the pipe. If rope oakum is used, the strands of the rope can be used. After the oakum is well packed into place and the pipe is lined up and made straight, molten lead is poured in and the hub filled. When the lead has cooled, set the lead with the caulking tool and hammer, making one blow on each side of the joint. This sets the lead evenly on every side. If there is any surplus lead, it can now be cut off, using the hammer and cold chisel. The caulking iron is again taken and the lead next to the pipe is tamped, striking the iron with the hammer at an angle to drive the lead against the pipe. After this has been done all around, the caulking iron is held in such a position that the lead around the hub will receive the force of the blow. After this has been done, the center of the lead is caulked and the joint should be tight. With a little practice, this can be done very rapidly. The lead should be poured in while it is very hot. The caulking must not be done by hitting heavy blows as there is a possibility of splitting the hub and thereby rendering the joint unfit for use.
Caulking Joint in Horizontal Position.—It is necessary in a great many cases to caulk a joint in a position where the lead would run out of the joint unless provision were made to hold it in. To caulk a joint in a position of this kind, the pipe is lined up and secured, then the oakum is put in and forced to the bottom of the hub. Then a joint runner, which is an asbestos rope about 2 feet long and about 1 inch in diameter, is fitted around the pipe and forced against the hub where it is clamped by means of an attached clamp. The clamp is put on the top of the pipe and so arranged that a channel will be left in a V shape. This channel allows the hot lead to run between the asbestos runner and the hub. When the lead has had a chance to cool, the asbestos runner is taken off. Where the clamp was, there will be a triangular piece of lead sticking out beyond the face of the hub. This piece has to be cut off, but no attempt should be made to do so until it has been caulked in place and well set; also the rest of the lead should be set. Then the cold chisel can be used and this extra piece of lead taken off. The caulking of the lead in this position is the same as in the previous position and should be carried out closely. The beginner should understand that it is necessary to have not only the joints tight so that running water will not leak out of them, but that the joints must stand a water test. The testing of soil stacks is explained under another heading. The lines of cast-iron pipe depend to a considerable extent upon these joints to make the whole line rigid.
Caulking of Fittings.—The caulking of fittings, while done the same as a straight pipe, is far more difficult. The improper making of these joints is the cause of many leaks. A long sweep fitting is caulked without a great deal of difficulty. If a short bend fitting is used, the matter of caulking is difficult. The fitting is so short that it is almost impossible to get a caulking iron into the throat. The mechanics will have to work at the throat from each side until this part has been sufficiently caulked. I call attention to this point, for I know it to be a failure in a large number of jobs when it comes to put the test on. In order to caulk the fittings, they must be put in their exact location and positions before the lead is poured in, for after the lead is once in the fitting cannot be moved. When there is a series of fittings on a line, their positions in relation to each other must be considered before the lead is poured.
Fig. 48 shows the same fixture and stack connections as Fig. 46. Two 4-inch lines run through the cellar, one a sanitary drain, the other a storm drain. Each 4-inch line has an intercepting trap. On the sewer side of these traps the two lines are brought together, beyond which point the two front rain leaders connect; each of the two front leaders is trapped separately.
Fig. 49 differs from the preceding one in only two points. First, the two front leaders are brought into the cellar and connected into the storm drain on the house side of the intercepting trap. Second, the storm and sanitary drains are connected on the outside of the building.
Fig. 50 shows the same fixtures collected into a 4-inch house drain, and the rain leaders run entirely on the outside of the building. This plan is a good one as all the storm water is kept entirely outside the building. If the storm drains are kept 5 feet away from the cellar walls (see Plumbing Code) the pipes can be of tile. Another good feature of this plan is that all the pipes under the cellar are 4-inch.
In Fig. 52 the drains shown take the waste and storm water from the apartment building, also a building set in the rear. The leader pipes in this case are trapped on the outside of the wall. The building in the rear you will note has a separate fresh air inlet and house trap, and the house sewer is continued through the front house and connected into the house drain of the front building, on the sewer side of the intercepting trap.
These drawings should be studied carefully and the student should in each case list correctly all of the material required for the installation of these jobs.
Cutting Cast-iron Pipe.—To cut cast-iron pipe, a sharp cold chisel and hammer are needed. The pipe is marked all around, just where it is to be cut. Then it is laid with the part of the pipe that is to be cut resting on a block of wood. A groove is cut with the hammer and chisel around the pipe. One person can turn the pipe while the other does the cutting. After a little experience one man can cut and roll the pipe alone. This groove is cut deeper and deeper until the pipe breaks apart. If standard pipe is being cut, a file is generally resorted to for cutting the groove. On account of the lightness of the pipe, a hammer and chisel will crack the pipe lengthwise. When cutting extra heavy cast-iron pipe, a good heavy blow must be struck to cause the chisel to cut into the iron. After a few cuts, the beginner will understand the weight of blow that must be struck to cut the pipe quickly.